Energy efficiency shows the relationship between energy consumption and the resulting impact, and demonstrates how the use of energy efficient systems and technologies contributes to reduced energy consumption while achieving the same effect (heat, refrigeration, lighting, process of cooking, washing, etc..).
The energy sector in Montenegro is characterized by high energy intensity in comparison with the European Union and developing countries, which is basically the result of high levels of energy consumption in all sectors: industry, building sector, transportation and housekeeping. The energy intensity factor is in the past few years up to six times greater in Montenegro than in the EU, which indicates the existence of a considerable scope for energy rationalization.
The role of energy efficiency is critical, both from the standpoint of economic development, as well as in relation to the resolution of many important environmental problems. In the process of adapting the energy efficiency requirements of environmental protection, it is necessary as soon as possible to start with those changes that do not require very high investments. In this sense, it is necessary to take advantage of those opportunities relating to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, as well as to adjust energy prices to real economic value, but carefully and in accordance with the increase in living standards of the population.
Energy efficiency is defined as one of the strategic goals of the National Energy Policy of Montenegro reported in the Energy Development Strategy and the Strategy for Energy Efficiency, as well as action plans for their implementation. Adoption of the Law on Energy Efficiency on 22.04.2010 represents a significant step towards establishing the necessary institutional and socio-economic environment in the area of effective final energy consumption.
Energy efficiency projects in Montenegro
Energy policy, and then the introduction of energy efficiency measures in the framework of the Government of Montenegro, is formulated and implemented by the Ministry of Economy. As the energy in the highest percentage is used in buildings, the most rational and most profitable long-term investment is energy efficiency of buildings. The Government of Montenegro has received a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in the amount of 6.5 million euros earmarked for the financing of energy efficiency projects in Montenegro (MEEP), which aims to improve energy efficiency in social and public buildings. MEEP project is aimed at the educational and medical institutions, primarily due to transparency of the promotion that can be achieved in the society. It is planned physical implementation of energy saving measures in certain buildings (12 schools, two students’ home and six hospitals). MEEP project will finance energy efficiency measures designed to achieving substantial energy savings and grouped as: (i) reconstruction of heating systems and systems for water heating in buildings; (ii) improving the facade of the building; and (iii) improving internal lighting. The project aims to improve energy efficiency in the educational and health institutions and increase public awareness about implemented energy efficiency measures.
Households are the second largest consumer of electricity in Montenegro since electricity accounts for 60% of total energy consumed for heating and cooling, water heating, etc.. For this reason, the Ministry of Economy in cooperation with GIZ (German International Cooperation) conducted the project “Year of Energy Efficiency” with the aim of raising public awareness about the importance of achieving energy efficiency in all social and economic sectors in Montenegro. Before starting the implementation of the Project was conducted initial research on public opinion on the level of public awareness of energy efficiency (October 2008), which laid the basis for planning future activities. In June 2009, was conducted a control research while in November 2009 was adopted the final study to analyze the ultimate effects of the Project. During the realization of the Project was conducted an intensive public campaign aiming to inform and raise public awareness about the need for efficient use of all energy sources. Promotional TV and radio spots, special serials on energy efficiency, as well as a documentary about energy efficiency and TV shows “Smart energy” have been prepared and broadcasted.
The conducted research has shown that awareness and public awareness has been growing, and that the activities carried out in the field of energy efficiency are in line with the expectations that citizens have. This is one in a series of fact which indicates that the realization of projects in the field of energy efficiency was justified bearing in mind the number of positive impacts that could be made: economic and energy savings, positive impact on the preservation of the environment, increase of general comfort, the development of entrepreneurship and job creation, new technologies, reduction of imported energy dependence, the development of international and domestic cooperation, etc..